FTTx Applications

Our Telecoms ducting systems and FTTx microtubing systems can be used anywhere in the network from backbone to deep fibre applications. This can include metro loops, WAN, LAN, access networks and last mile connections right to the premises.

Our FTTx product range provides a wide range of solutions for next generation access networks.

Access networks may connect some of the following:

  • Fixed wireless network antenna, for example wireless LAN or WiMAX
  • Mobile network base stations
  • Subscribers in residential houses, terraces or blocks of flats
  • Larger buildings such as schools, hospitals and businesses
  • Key security and monitoring structures like surveillance cameras, security alarms and control devices

Network Applications

The network environment can be broadly split into:

  • Intercity/regional
  • City
  • Campus, business parks, private networks
  • Open residential
  • Rural
  • Building type and density: single homes or multi-dwelling units (MDUs)

The type of site will be a key factor in deciding the most appropriate network design and architecture. Types include:

  • Greenfield: new build where the network will be introduced at the same time as the buildings
  • Brownfield: where there are existing buildings and infrastructure but the infrastructure is to a lower standard
  • Overbuild: adding to the existing infrastructure

The main influences for the infrastructure deployment methodology are:

  • type of FTTH area
  • size of the FTTH network
  • initial deployment cost of the infrastructure elements (CAPEX)
  • ongoing costs for network operation and maintenance (OPEX)
  • network architecture, for example PON or Active Ethernet
  • local conditions, for example, local labour costs, local authority restrictions (traffic control) and others

The fibre deployment technology will determine CAPEX and OPEX, as well as the reliability of the network. These costs can be optimised by choosing the most appropriate active solution combined with the most appropriate infrastructure deployment methodology. These methods include:

  • conventional underground duct and cable
  • blown microtubes and cable
  • direct buried cable
  • aerial cable
  • 'other rights of way' solutions

FTTH Architecture

In order to specify the interworking of passive and active infrastructure, it is important to make a clear distinction between the topologies used for the deployment of the fibres (the passive infrastructure) and the technologies used to transport data over the fibres (the active equipment).

The two most widely used topologies are point-to-multipoint, which is often combined with a passive optical network (PON) architecture, and point-to-point, typically using Ethernet transmission technologies.

Point-to-multipoint topologies with passive optical splitters in the field are deployed in order to be operated by one of the standardised PON technologies (GPON is today's frontrunner in Europe, while EPON has been massively deployed in Asia) using time-sharing protocols to control the access of multiple subscribers to the shared feeder fibre. Active Ethernet technology can also be used to control subscriber access in a point-to-multipoint topology – this requires placing Ethernet switches in the field.

Point-to-point topologies provide dedicated fibres between the POP and the subscriber. Each subscriber is directly connected by a dedicated fibre. Most existing point-to-point FTTH deployments use Ethernet, but this can be mixed with other transmission schemes for business applications (for example Fibre Channel, SDH/SONET). This topology can also include PON technologies by placing the passive optical splitters in the access node.